LABORATORY

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Taking Soil and leaf samples

TAKING SOIL SAMPLES
A right soil analysis starts with a careful sampling, continues with an appropriate lab process and ends with the right implementation of the data. Therefore the first rule of a reliable soil analysis is the right soil sampling. The soil samplings depend of the season but they have to be taken before October or before using fertilizers. Taps or shovels have to be used to take samples. The differences of the field have to be determined before taking samples. Slope, color of the soil, height and other differences have to be considered and samples must be taken from each different area. If it'a homogeneous area, it doesn't have to be greater than 40.000m2.

The soil samples have to be taken from a zig zag line from 8-10 points each 15-20 steps. The places to be sampled must be cleaned of residuals.

A V-form 30cm pit is digged to take the sample from the fields where a yearly plant will be planted on the zig zag line One surface of the pit is plained. From this surface a slice of soil sample is taken and the samples taken are put into a bucket.

Two different soil samples are taken from fruit fields in 0-30cm and 30-60 deep. These samples are put into a plastic bucket. The samples have to be taken from the direct line of the top of the tree.

The samples taken from different places depending on the size of the area are mixed in a clean and shadow place. About 2kg of the soil samples get purified from stones, labeled and put into a bag and taken to the lab immediately.





SOIL SAMPLE LABEL

  • City, district/village
  • Size of the field
  • Depth of sampling
  • Plant of last year and yield
  • Fertilizers used last yeard and amount
  • This years' plants and type of agriculture
  • Date of sampling
  • Name, surname and address of field owner

PLACES WHERE SAMPLING IS UNFAVORABLE
The samples have to be taken from places representing the field. The samples cannot be taken from anywhere. These places are unfavorable for sampling:

  • Fertilizer piling places or places of animal fertilizers
  • Threshing places or places where animals lied
  • Places where stems, roots and wild plants were burned
  • Pit places of the field built of water on the field
  • under the trees
  • upper sides of arrays where array planting is practiced
  • places near streams, canals, forests, fences and roads

TAKING LEAF SAMPLES
In a physiologic period appropriate for each plant the leaf samples are taken depending on the plant and on the size of the field by walking in U or X form from a sufficient amount of plants. The samples should not be mixed. The type and sort of the samples must be the same. Taking leaf samples, it's important which and when the leaf samples are taken.

Type of leaf Developig Period Part To Sample Amount


Corn
seedling period smaller than 30cm Whole of the upper section 20 - 30
Upper part before fringe right under the point where the upper leafs are the youngest developed leaf 15 - 25
Corncub until the fringe Whole of the leaf where the core starts 15 - 25

Cereals
seedling period smaller than 30cm whole of the upper section 50 - 100
Before earing 4 leafs closest to the top 40 - 50
Forage Plants before earing 4 leafs closest to the top 40 - 50
Clover Before or while flowering In the 1/3rd section of the plants height 40 - 50
Sugar beet Middle of season Youngest leafs between the youngest and oldest leafs 30 - 40
Cotton Before the first flower or when the first scallop is seen Youngest developed leaf on the main body 30 - 40
Potato Before or at the beginning of the flower 3-6 leafs from the beginning 20 - 30
Tomato Before or at the beginning of the flower 3-4 leafs from the beginning 20 - 25
Beans Before or at the beginning of the flower 2-3 leafs at the top of the plant 20 - 30
Leafed legumes Middle of the developing period Youngest developed leaf 35 - 50
Patch Before the fruits at the beginning of the developing period Upper section on the main body, the youngest leaf 20 - 30
Peas Before or while the first flowering The leaf on the 3rd joint from the top 30 - 60
Root vegetables Before the coarsening of the root or head The youngest developed leaf 20 - 30
Cabbage, lettuce etc Before the developing of the head Youngest leaf developed from the middle toward outside 10 - 20
Hard and soft Nucleates In the middle of the developing period From four sides of the tree of the same year 50 - 100
Walnut 6 weeks before flowering Middle pair of the middle part 30 - 45
Citrus Middle of developing period Youngest leafs of the year without fruits" 20 - 30

Vine
End of flowering period The stem of the leaf at the fruits 60 - 100
Middle of developing period Youngest leafs developed 20 - 40
Tea Flowering time 2-4 leafs middle of the plant 30 - 45
Strawberry Middle of developing period Youngest leafs 30 - 45
Olives 6 weeks before flowering Developed leaf pairs in the middle 50 - 100